Yleisperfektiä käytetään, kun halutaan kertoa menneisyydessä alkaneesta toiminnasta, joka liittyy vielä nykyhetkeen, tai joka jatkuu edelleen.

Perfekti muodostetaan käyttämällä have tai has + verbin 3. muoto.

This is Jane. She is 14 years old.

She studies English at school.

She started when she was 11.

She has studied English for 4 years.

(Perfektiä käytetään, koska toiminta jatkuu edelleen.)

This is Jane’s mother, she’s 34.

She studied English at school.

She started in 1971 and finished in 1974.

She studied English for 4 years.

(Imperfektiä käytetään, koska toiminta on jo loppunut.)

John has lived in Finland for 20 years. John on asunut suomessa 20 v. (Hän tuli 20 vuotta sitten, ja on edelleen täällä.)

Vertaa: Mike lived in Finland for 20 years. Hän asui suomessa 20 vuotta. (Ei asu enää.)

Perfektiä käytetään yleensä sellaisten ajan ilmaisujen kanssa, jotka kuvaavat vielä jatkuvaa aikaa.

a) today, tonight

b) this morning, this afternoon, this evening, this week, this month, this year, this summer

c) since four o’clock, since Tuesday, since June 12th, since yesterday

d) so far, ever (kysymyksessä), just, yet, already, still


Katso tätä kysymystä ja vastausta.

1. Have you ever seen the Queen of England? Yes, I’ve seen her once.

2. When did you see her? I saw her in 1989.

Ensimmäisessä kysymyksessä halutaan tietää, oletko koskaan nähnyt kuningatarta. Toisessa kysymyksessä tiedetään jo, että olet nähnyt kuningattaren, mutta haluamme tietää milloin menneisyydessä olet nähnyt kuningattaren, siksi käytetään imperfektiä.

I           received             I have received three letters today.
You           typed             You have typed 6 pages so far today.
We     have     bought             We have bought 6 books today.
They           waited             They have waited for three hours.
He           read             He has read many books this week.
She     has     asked             She has asked many questions this lesson.
It           rained             It has rained all the week.
I           washed             I haven’t washed my car yet this week.
You     have not     answered             You haven’t answered the question.
We     (haven't)     been             We haven’t been to Brazil.
They           finished             They haven’t finished their breakfast yet.
He           smoked             He hasn’t smoked any cigarettes this week.
She     has not     done             She hasn’t done her homework.
It     (hasn't)     snowed             It hasn’t snowed this winter.
      I     understood ?             Have I understood correctly?
      you     talked ?             Have you talked to them about it yet?
Have     we     decided ?             Have we decided where to go yet?
      they     seen ?             Have they seen Forrest Gump?
      he     been ?             Has he ever been to England?
Has     she     spent ?             Has she spent much money today?
      it     snowed ?             Has it ever snowed in Finland in July?
Have you ever been to England?     Yes, I’ve been to England.     Yes, I have.  
      No, I haven’t been to England.     No, I haven’t.  
Has she seen The Lion King?     Yes, she’s seen The Lion King.     Yes she has.  
      No, she hasn’t seen The Lion King.     No, she hasn’t.  
How much money     have     you     spent   today?
How often     have     you     been   to the cinema, this month?
How many times     has     he     seen   that video?
What     have     they     done   today?




Have you ever seen a ghost? No, never.

EVER/NEVER - koskaan/ ei koskaan

Have you ever eaten snake meat? No, I’ve never eaten snake meat.

JUST - juuri

He’s just arrived.

We’ve just finished.

YET - vielä Kysymyksissä ja kielteisissä lauseissa (ei koskaan myönteisissä lauseissa).

Have you started yet? No, I’m afraid I haven’t started yet.

Have they finished the new road yet? No, not yet.

ALREADY - jo Käytetään myönteisissä lauseissa, kun jotain on tapahtunut ennen odotettua aikaa

Yes, we’ve already started.

Yes, they’ve already finished it.

Do you want to come to the musical? - No, thanks. I’ve already seen it.

STILL - yhä, vielä Tilanteessa, joka jatkuu yhä.

They still haven’t answered our letter.

She still hasn’t returned.


8.3 Reading - On holiday

John Miles is on a 14 day tour of Europe. He’s halfway through the tour and telephones his girlfriend Mary to tell her about it.




Hi Mary, this is John here.

Oh hello John. how are you, and where are you?

I’m fine thanks Mary - at the moment I’m in Paris, I’m phoning from a phone-box outside the hotel. We’re waiting for the coach to take us on a sightseeing tour.




Paris, how wonderful, how long have you been in Paris? Have you been up the Eiffel tower yet?

I’ve been here for a day and a half but I haven’t been up the Eiffel tower yet. We’re going there tomorrow with the group. I’ve been to the Louvre museum.

Have you? How marvellous. When did you go there?




We went there yesterday. We spent an hour in the museum, but you really need a whole day. There are so many things to see.

I’m sure there are. You haven’t sent me a postcard yet.

I have. I sent you a postcard from Rome three days ago. Haven’t you got it yet?





No, not yet. Have you been to Athens yet?

Yes, we went there before we went to Rome. It was very expensive in Athens.

Have you spent all your money yet?

No, not yet. I’ve still got some left. But if I run out, I’ll use my credit card.





How many rolls of film have you used?

I’ve used about three rolls of film, and I’ve taken about two hours of video.

I look forward to seeing those. Have you bought many souvenirs yet?

I bought some perfume for you yesterday. Look, I’ve got to go, Mary, the bus has just arrived, I’ll phone you again in three days time.



OK. Bye-bye John. Take care of yourself.

Bye Mary.

8.4 Exercise - Please answer these questions.

8.5 Reading practice - New York, New York

Read this letter from the Mayor of New York to the visitors to New York, and also the five descriptions of tourist attractions in New York.


Dear Friends,

On behalf of the people of New York City, I would like to welcome you to our City so full of excitement and diversity.

The people of New York City live within the five boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island. Each of these boroughs offers a unique collection of experiences and attractions that promise a memorable visit.

I invite you to visit our internationally famous theaters restaurants and museums, or tour our historic parks, churches and ·- landmarks, including the Empire State Building, World Trade Center, Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. Also this year, The American Museum of Natural History is proudly celebrating its 125th anniversary with the reopening of two dinosaur halls

You may want to spend your day shopping in our fine department stores and boutiques. In the evening you can enjoy one of our many night-clubs, the ballet, opera, a Broadway show or concert. Sports fans also can watch the best in basebaII, football, basketball, hockey or soccer - New York City has them all.

Whatever your interests. I wish you an enjoyabIe visit!


Rudolph W. Giuliani, Mayor



Fifth Avenue

Fifth Avenue is ranked among the world's most impressive boulevards, alongside the Champs Elysees and the Ginza. Here you will discover everything from jewellery to home furnishings, fashions, sporting goods and objets d'art. A stroll up the avenue will take you past some of the most prestigious names in the fashion world, including Tiffany's, Hermes, Bally and St. John. You'll also find famous department stores such as Saks Fifth Avenue and Bergdorf Goodman. Not to be missed is Trump Tower, with its marbled atrium, waterfalls and trendy shops.

Empire State Building

When it was built in 1931 it was the highest building in the world, and it stayed the highest building for 41 years. This beautiful and graceful building is 1,454 feet high. You take 3 lifts to get to the observation platform at the top, from where you get a superb view of New York and its surrounding area.

The Statue of Liberty

In 1885 the French government gave this impressive statue to the American people in honour of their alliance in the War of Independence. This amazing work of art is 46 metres tall and weighs over 200 tons. It’s the world’s most famous symbol of liberty. Thousands of tourists visit it every day and there is an observation deck in the crown.

Greenwich Village

This is the bohemian centre of New York. The buildings are low and 300 years ago this really was a village. Today it’s a very fashionable area with tree-lined streets full of restaurants and pubs, night-clubs and cafes. The home of thousands of actors, musicians and students who enjoy its carefree, cosmopolitan atmosphere.

Central Park

New Yorkers like to tell you that this is the largest park in the world. In fact it’s two and a half miles long and half a mile wide and it’s the place where New Yorkers go to relax. In Central Park you can jog, go horse-riding, go boating or simply sit on the grass and look at the wildlife. In summer you can also watch dance, music and theatre performances.

8.7 Listening comprehension


TAG QUESTIONS (Liitekysymykset)
Look at this conversation

A: It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it?

B: Yes, it is. It isn’t usually so warm in spring, is it?

A. No it isn’t. The tulips look lovely, don’t they?

B: Yes, they do.

..... isn’t it? ja .... is it? mielipiteen perässä ovat liitekysy- myksiä.

Liitekysymykset ovat eräänläinen keskustelutekniikka.

You do love me, don’t you?

Liitekysymyksiä käytetään silloin kun:

1) Haluamme aloittaa keskustelun jonkun kanssa. It’s a lovely day, isn’t it?

2) Kun haluamme varmistaa asian. The train leaves at 10.00, doesn’t it?

3) Kun haluamme pakottaa toisen ihminen vastaamaan. You can hear me, can’t you?

Kaikki liitekysymykset tarkoittavat "eikö totta?" ja kaikissa käytetään apuverbiä.

Liitekysymyksen teko:

Jos päälause on myönteinen ---------- liitekysymys on kielteinen

Jos päälause on kielteinen ------------ liitekysymys on myönteinen

Liitekysymys toistaa samassa aikamuodossa päälauseen.

BE-VERBI (yksinään tai going to + kestomuodon kanssa)

You are English, aren’t you?

You aren’t French, are you?

They’re going to travel, aren’t they?

He isn’t very old, is he?

She isn’t working today, is she?

We weren’t welcome, were we?

I wasn’t sleeping, was I?


You take milk in your coffee, don’t you?

You don’t take sugar in your tea, do you?

She doesn’t speak Spanish, does she?

He likes New York, doesn’t he?

Mary works in London, doesn’t she?

They came by taxi, didn’t they?

They didn’t stay long, did they?


You’ve got a ticket, haven’t you?

They haven’t arrived yet, have they?

He’s got a lot of friends, hasn’t he?


You’ll help me, won’t you?

They won’t go too fast, will they?


They can swim, can’t they?

He can’t ski, can he?


We must try, mustn’t we?

They needn’t come, need they?

8.11 Quick exercise - Complete the sentences using tag questions



In the English speaking world and in many other countries, small talk is a very important part of communication. Small talk is used for many reasons, to get to know somebody better, to make the atmosphere more relaxed, to show that you are interested in a person and to show that you like that person. Small talk is:




RESPONDING TO COMMENTS ( respond = reply)



ASKING QUESTIONS               When did you arrive?
                How was the journey?
                What was the weather like in London?
                Have you ever been to Finland before?
                What do you think of our weather?
                Is your hotel comfortable?
ASKING TAG QUESTIONS               You arrived last night, didn't you?
                You travelled from Helsinki by car, didn't you?
                It's a beautiful day, isn't it?
                It's not very nice today, is it?
                You're staying at the Cumulus Hotel aren't you?
MAKING COMMENTS               It's a long flight from Singapore
                Most of our visitors stay in the Cumulus Hotel.
                We've had a lot of snow this year.
                They serve very good food in Cumulus.
                Hämeenlinna isn't a very large town.
It's a long flight from Singapore.         Yes it is, more than 12 hours.      
Most of our visitors stay there.         It's a very nice hotel.      
We've had a lot of snow this year.         Have you? We haven't had any this year.      
They serve very good food in Cumulus.         I must say that the breakfast was excellent.      
We get a lot of tourists here in summer.         I imagine it's beautiful in summer.      
When did you arrive?         Last night. About ten actually.      
How was the journey?         Very pleasant, thank you.      
What was the weather like in London?         Typical English weather, cold and wet.      
Have you ever been to Finland before?         No, this is my first time.      
What do you think of our weather?         A little cold, I prefer warmer weather.      
ACTIVE LISTENING                
It's the largest factory in Finland.         Really!      
The office was built last year.         I see.      
We've got 4000 employees.         Mmm.      
There was an accident this morning.         Oh dear.      

8.15 Quick exercise - Fill in the gaps using still, yet or already

8.16 Pronunciation practice




a) SOME käytetään yleensä myönteisissä lauseissa ja ANY kielteisissä lauseissa.

I’ve got some oranges.         They haven’t got any money.
There’s something in my coffee.         He hasn’t got anywhere to live.
b) Any / anyone / anything jne. käytetään if-sanan jälkeen.
If you want anything else, please ask.
If anybody telephones, tell them I’ll ring them back
If any letters arrive for me, please send them to my new address
c) Kysymyksissä käytetään ANY, ei SOME-sanaa.
Has she got any money?         Has anybody got the answer?

Mutta, käytämme usein SOME kun odotamme "yes" vastaus:

Have you got somewhere nice to live now? (Olen varma että sinullä ON.)

Käytämme SOME kun tarjoamme, tai pyydämme tarjoilua:

Would you like some biscuits?         Could I have some coffee, please?  
d) ANY / ANYONE / ANYBODY / ANYTHING / ANYWHERE voi myöskin tarkoittaa mitä -, ketkä-, tai missä tahansa
You can read any of these books, they’re all good.
You can eat anything you want.
Go anywhere you want.
The door was open, anybody could have come in.
e) SOMEONE / SOMEBODY / ANYONE / ANYBODY tarkoittavat yksikköä
Someone is at the door.
Is anybody there?.
f) NO-ONE / NOBODY / NOTHING / NOWHERE, Näitä kielteisiä sanoja käyetään lauseen alussa tai yksin.
Nothing makes her happy.
Nobody was there.
Where are you going? Nowhere.
Everyone enjoyed the party.
I’ve done everything to help her.
I can’t find my glasses, I’ve looked everywhere.


8.18 Quick exercise - Complete these sentences with a suitable word

8.19 Reading practice - Read this puzzle and answer the questions to find the answer

8.20 Reading - Facts about Finland

Finland is one of the northernmost countries of Europe, it is located between Russia on the east, Sweden on the west, and Norway on the north. On the west coast Finland is bordered by the Gulf of Finland in the south and the Gulf of Bothnia in the North. About one third of the length of the country lies north of the Arctic Circle.

Because of the hard climate most of the Finnish people live in the southern third of the country, either along the coast on the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland or around the edges of the numerous lakes.

Finland is a stable, progressive country. It has been independent since 1917. Finland was defeated twice by the Soviet Union during World War II. The Finns lost valuable land areas and were forced to pay a lot of money to the Soviet Union. Since that time the Finns have rebuilt their country and have maintained a neutral foreign policy.

Finland's land area covers nearly 340,000 square kilometers . In 1990 there was an average of about 16.4 people per square kilometer. Most of the country is low lying with some small mountains and hilly areas in the far north. There are around 550 000 lakes in Finland and inland water covers about 10 percent of Finland's area. The best land for farming is mainly along the coast and around the inland lakes in south and central Finland.

Finland has a northern continental type climate. In the southern part, winds off the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea prevent severe weather conditions. Northern Finland has long, hard winters and short, cool summers.

Frost can occur during any month in the north, and even in the south the growing season is only three months. Because of the country's far northern latitude, it has long hours of summer daylight. The annual average precipitation ranges from 60 centimeters in the south to 41 centimeters in the far north. Winter snowfall is considerable.

8. Exercises for sending to your instructor


Takaisin alkuun

Takaisin etusivulle