Yleispluskvamperfektiä käytetään, kun kerrotaan mitä oli tapahtunut ennen tiettyä ajankohtaa.


At 2 o’clock I wrote the first letter.       Kello 2 kirjoitin ensimmäisen kirjeen.
At 4 o’clock I wrote the last letter.       Kello 4 kirjoitin viimeisen kirjeen.
By 3 o’clock I had written half the letters.       Kello 3:n mennessä olin kirjoittanut puolet kirjeistä
Pluskvamperfektiä käytetään:

1) WHEN ja BEFORE-sanojen kanssa kun kerrotaan kumpi kahdesta tapahtumasta tapahtui ensin.

esim.     Jane had already left the office WHEN Mr Smith arrived.
      WHEN John came the meeting had already started.
      Jane had left the office BEFORE Mr Smith arrived.
      The meeting had started BEFORE John came.

2) Kun kerrotaan mitä joku muu on sanonut - kts. myös UNIT 12.

esim.     Jane: I ate the fish. Jane said that she had eaten the fish.

3) 3. konditionaalin kanssa - kts. myös UNIT 11.

esim.     I would have bought the car if I had had enough money with me.  
      Olisin ostanut auton jos minulla olisi ollut tarpeeksi rahaa mukanani.  
Pluskvamperfekti muodostetaan käyttämälla had -apuverbiä ja pääverbin 3. muotoa. Verbi on sama kaikissa persoonamuodoissa:


      I       seen                 By 3 o’clock I had seen all the pupils.  
      You       bought                 You had already bought the car when I telephoned.  
      He   ‘d   telephoned                 By 4 o’clock he’d telephoned over half his clients.  
      She   had   sent                 She had already sent the letter.  
      It       grown                 By midsummer the tree had grown too large .  
      We       begun                 We had already begun the work before you called.  
      They       finished                 They had finished by 5 o’clock.  


      I       paid                 I hadn’t paid the bill when the reminder came.  
      You       eaten                 You weren’t ill because you hadn’t eaten the food.  
      He   hadn’t   met                 He hadn’t met the President before.  
      She   had not   been                 She hadn’t been to the dentist for 3 years.  
      It       rained                 It hadn’t rained by the time we got there.  
      We       had                 We hadn’t had a good meal in over a week.  
      They       heard                 They hadn’t heard.  


          I   telephoned?         Had I telephoned?     Yes, you had.  
          you   studied?         Had you studied English earlier?     Yes I had.  
      Had   he   taken?         Had he already taken his medicine?     Yes, he had.  
          she   left?         Had she left the office by 3 o’clock?     Yes, she had.  
          we   gone?         Had we gone home?     Yes, you had.  
          they   done?         Had they done the work?     Yes, they had.  
How long had you studied French before you started learning English?       I’d studied it for 3 years.
What had happened in the office at the weekend?       Burglars had broken in.
Had you already written the letter?     Yes, I’d already written the letter.     Yes I had.
      No, I hadn’t already written the letter.     No, I hadn’t.

10.2 Quick exercise

10.5 Exercise - Listening comprehension



John is an ice hockey player.

He has an ice-hockey match tonight. The match begins at 6 o’clock and ends at 7.30. Jane wants to see John this evening and wants to know what time to come:

Jane: Is it all right if I come at about 7.15?

John: No, don’t come then. I’ll be playing ice-hockey.

Jane: Well, what about 8.30?

John: Yes, that’s fine. The match will have finished by then.

1) Will be ...ing-rakennetta (kestofutuuria) käytetään, kun halutaan kertoa jatkuvasta toiminnasta tulevaisuudessa.

Kestofutuuri muodostetaan rakenteella will be + pääverbin ....ing muoto.

2) Will have finished on futuuriperfekti. Futuuriperfektiä käytetään, kun halutaan kertoa toiminnasta, joka tulee olemaan tapahtunut ennen tiettyä aikaa tulevaisuudessa.

Futuuriperfekti muodostetaan rakenteella will have + pääverbin 3. muoto.

      I       finished               I will have finished this book by tomorrow.
      You       eaten               You will have eaten before we arrive.
      He   will have   learnt               He will have learnt to speak English well by the time he’s 16.
      She   ‘ll have   visited               By this time next year she’ll have visited the States.
      We       seen               We will have seen it by 5 o’clock.
      They       retired               They will have retired by 1999.


  I       written         I won’t have written the letter by 3 o’clock, I need more time.
  You       read         You won’t have read the report yet.
  He   will not have   been         He won’t have been there.
  She   won’t have   heard         She won’t have heard the news.
  We       paid         We won’t have paid until 1998.
  They       discovered         I’m sure they won’t have discovered a cure until the year 2000.


    I       finished?               Will I have finished by then?
    you       written?               Will you have written it before you go home?
Will   he   have   seen?               Will he have seen his girlfriend by next week?
    she       taken?               Will she have taken the job?
    we       spent?               Will we have spent all our money by the end of the week?
    they       earned?               Will they have earned enough money to buy a new car by then?


10.10 Finland for foreigners - the Sauna.

To all Finns, the sauna is part of everyday life - there's nothing unusual or unnatural about it. However, to some foreigners the idea of taking off your clothes in front of others - and sitting in a hot, steamy room may seem unpleasant. We must be rather careful how we invite foreigners to the sauna - we must make sure that they genuinely want to go.

In these dialogues, Matti invites his English friend to have a sauna.

Part 1

Matti invites Peter to the sauna.

Matti: Have you ever had a sauna, Peter?

Peter: No, I've never actually had a sauna, they're becoming quite popular in England though

Matti: Our company has a very nice sauna, we often take our visitors there. Would you like to have a sauna this evening?

Peter: Yes, I'd love to. Thank you very much.

Matti: Good, I'll pick you up at your hotel at about 6.00. By the way, I wouldn't eat too much before we go, as there'll be sausages and salad there.

Peter: Sounds fun. What should I wear?

Matti: Casual clothes - and if you've got swimming trunks bring them because we can go swimming in the lake.

Peter: I'm afraid I didn't bring them with me to Finland.

Matti: Not to worry, you can borrow swimming trunks there.


Have you ever had a sauna?

Would you like to have a sauna this evening?

I'll pick you up at your hotel at 6 o'clock.

I wouldn't eat too much before we go.

Not to worry.


Part 2

Matti explains the sauna to Peter.

Matti: This is the changing room, you can hang your clothes up here. The showers are through there. We always have a shower before we go to the sauna.

Peter: Fine.


Matti: Here's a seat mat - we usually sit on these in the sauna.

Peter: Thanks, why do you use seat mats?

Matti: They're for hygiene, and the sauna benches can sometimes be rather hot.


You can hang your clothes up here.

We always have a shower before we go to the sauna.

We usually sit on these.

They're for hygiene.


Part 3

More sauna talk

Matti: I ‘d sit over there if I were you, Peter.

Peter: Right. My goodness, it's hot.

Matti: It's got to be hot. 100 °C is a good temperature. Now for some "löyly".

Peter: What's "löyly"?

Matti. That's our name for the steam we get when we throw the water onto the stones. Are you ready? Here we go. (throws water on stones)

Peter: (red in face and breathing with difficulty) Phew!

Matti: If it's too hot for you, sit on the lower bench - it's cooler there.

Peter: I'm fine now - it just takes a bit of getting used to. Are all saunas like this?

Matti: Basically, yes. But there are many types of sauna stove. This one's electric, but many people have wood burning stoves - especially in their summer cottages.


I’d sit over there if I were you.

That's our name for the steam.

If it's too hot for you, sit on the lower bench.

Part 4

Using the birch whisk.

Matti: How are you feeling? Are you enjoying the sauna.

Peter: Very much indeed! It's great!

Matti: This is a very traditional part of the Finnish sauna - the birch whisk. We hit ourselves lightly with it - like this (shows).

Peter: Why do you do that?

Matti: It's very good for the blood circulation.

Peter: I'll try anything once...........................................................................

Matti: Let's take a break now, and have a swim in the lake.

Peter: Good idea!

Matti: After that we can have a beer and eat something!


How are you feeling?

This is a very traditional part of the sauna - the birch whisk.

We hit ourselves lightly with it.

It's very good for the blood circulation.

Let's take a break and have a swim.

10.11 Pronunciation practice - Listen and repeat these key phrases

10.13 Small talk - The sauna


You must get new glasses.

I have to go to the dentist.

1. MUST ja HAVE TO käytetään, kun kerrotaan, että on pakko tehdä jotain. Yleensä on samantekevää kumpaa käytetään.

It’s very late, I must go now.

It’s very late, I have to go now.

2. Must-sanaa voidaan käyttää ainoastaan kun puhutaan nykyhetkestä tai tulevaisuudesta:

We must leave now.

Must you go to work tomorrow. (Huom! Ei "will must"!)

Must-sanaa ei voi käyttää kun puhutaan menneisyydestä. (Eli ei voida sanoa "did must"!)

3. Have to-rakennetta käytetään kaikissa verbimuodoissa.
    I had to go to the dentist yesterday. (imperfekti)     Minun täytyi mennä hammaslääkäriin eilen.
    We might have to buy a new car . (infinitiivi)     Meidän täytyy ehkä ostaa uusi auto.
    Have you ever had to go to hospital ? (perfekti)     Oletko koskaan joutunut sairalaan?
    Do I have to write to them.     Täytyykö minun kirjoittaa heille?
    Why did you have to go to the doctor.     Miksi sinun täytyi mennä lääkäriin?
    John doesn’t have to go to work next week.     Johnin ei tarvitse mennä työhön ensi viikolla.
4. Mustn’t ja don’t have to ovat täysin erilaisia, mustn’t = ei saa, don’t have to = ei tarvitse
    Children mustn’t drink whiskey.               Lapset eivät saa juoda viskiä.
    Adults don’t have to drink whiskey.               Aikuisten ei tarvitse juoda viskiä.
5. Voit myös käyttää "have got to".

I have got to go to work tomorrow. = I have to go to work tomorrow.

When have you got to leave. = When do you have to leave.

10.15 Exercise

10.16 Exercise



Use your dictionary and do this light-hearted quiz. Check your score at the end of the item.


1. You find a wallet containing 10,000 mk. There are no papers inside showing who owns it. What do you do?

a) Keep the money   b) Give it to the police   c) Not sure

2. You have done some work for a neighbour and he pays you 2000 mk. Do you include this in your tax return?

a) Of course   b) Certainly not   c) Not sure

3. Do you think it is OK to take pens, paper, rubbers etc. from the place where you work?

a) Yes   b) No   c) Yes, but not too much

4. Have you ever cheated in an exam?

a) Often   b) Sometimes   c) Seldom   d) Never

5. Your car is for sale. Someone offers to pay you 20 000 mk and they promise to bring you the money tomorrow and you shake hands. An hour later another person offers you 22 000 mk cash. What do you do?

a) Tell him that you have already promised it to someone else.
b) Take the 22 000 mk and tell the first buyer that you have changed your mind.
c) Tell the first buyer about the new offer and give him a chance to increase his offer

6. You've ordered a 4 000 mk TV from a mail order store. They send you the TV but they make a mistake with the bill and invoice you for only 2 000 mk. What do you do?

a) Pay the invoice and say nothing.
b) Tell the store to send a new invoice.
c) Not sure.

7. At the supermarket check-out you notice that the cashier has forgotten to include a 2mk chewing gum and there is a long queue behind you. Do you

a) Tell the cashier about the chewing gum?
b) Say nothing, take the chewing gum and walk away?
c) Leave the chewing gum ?

8. You see the 12 year old daughter of a close friend shoplifting in a department store. What do you do?

a) Tell the child that you saw her shoplifting.
b) Tell your close friend what you saw (but not tell the child).
c) Tell the store detective.
d) Look the other way.

9. Can it ever be all right to tell lies?

a)In certain cases   b) Rarely   c) Never

10. You are playing cards (not for money) and notice that one of the other players is cheating. What do you think?

a) It's not so important.
b) You get a little annoyed, but say nothing.
c) You tell them to stop cheating
d) You stop playing.

11. You're travelling on a train and you find an unused ticket worth about 100 mk on the floor. What do you do?

a) Use the ticket yourself next time you travel
b) Give it to the ticket inspector.
c) Leave it on the floor.

12. You eat a meal in an expensive restaurant. You check the bill and notice that the waiter has forgotten to include the last round of drinks. What do you do?

a) Tell the waiter   b) Keep quiet   c) Not sure

13 Have you ever pretended to be ill to avoid work or school?

a) Never
b) Seldom
c) Occasionally
d) Frequently

14 You're worried that your 18 year old daughter has some strange friends. One day your daughter has left a letter from one of her friends on the kitchen table. The envelope is open but the letter is inside the envelope. Do you take the letter out of the envelope and read it?

a) Of course not   b) Of course - I've got a right   c) Perhaps

15 The police have stopped you for speeding. They ask you how much you earn so that they can calculate your fine. What do you tell them?

a) The absolute truth   b) Less than the absolute truth   c) That you are unemployed


1. a 5, b 0, c 2   2. a 0, b 5, c 2   3. a 5, b 0, c 2   4. a 5, b 4, c 3, d 0   5. a 0, b 5, c 3
6. a 5, b 0, c 3   7. a 0, b 3, c 1   8. a 0, b 3, c 3, d 5   9. a 5, b 3, c 0   10. a 3, b 3, c 2, d 0
11. a 5, b 0, c 3   12. a 0, b 5, c 2   13. a 0, b 2, c 3, d 5   14. a 0, b 5, c 3   15. a 0, b 3, c 5


0 - 6 You're either an exceptionally honest person or you have answered the questions dishonestly.

7 - 20 You're a very honest person.

21 - 33 You're more honest than most.

34 - 48 You're honest about some things and dishonest about other things.

48 - 60 You seem to be a dishonest person.

61 - 75 You should be ashamed of yourself.



John’s a very careful driver - he drives carefully.

Mike plays the guitar beautifully.

1. Carefully ja beautifully ovat adverbeja. Suurin osa adverbeista tehdään adjektiiveistä lisäämällä -ly -pääte.
slow   slowly       quiet   quietly       dangerous   dangerously  
bad   badly       serious   seriously       careful   carefully  
heavy   heavily       perfect   perfectly       surprising   surprisingly  
2. Kumpaa käytetään?

Adjektiivi on kuvaileva sana - se antaa enemmän tietoa substantiivistä. Se vastaa kysymykseen

"What kind of.." (Millainen)

What kind of driver is Mary? Mary is a slow and careful driver.

Adverbi on myös kuvaileva sana - se antaa enemmän tietoa verbistä. Se vastaa kysymykseen

"How ...." Millä tavalla

How does Mary drive? She drives slowly and carefully.

3. Kaikkia adverbeja ei tehdä lisämällä -ly -päätettä. On muutamia poikkeuksia:
  good     well         She’s a good driver, she drives well.
  hard     hard         He’s a hard worker, he works hard. (Huom! Hardly tarkoittaa tuskin.)
  fast     fast         John’s a fast driver, sometimes he drives too fast.
4. Käytämme adverbeja adjektiivien ja muiden adverbien edessä:
      This car is surprisingly fast.         Tämä auto on hämmastyttävän nopea.
      The meal was incredibly expensive.         Ateria oli uskomattoman kallis.
      She learnt English amazingly quickly.         Hän oppi englantia hämmästyttävän nopeasti.

10.21 Exercise

10.22 Exercise

10.23 Reading for pleasure - The Richest Woman in the World.

By the time you have finished reading this page, Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth the Second will be £7000 richer. She is the richest woman in the world - her income is estimated at £1.8 million a day.

Where does the money come from? Well, every year the Queen receives £7.1 million pounds from the British government. This money is used to pay the household expenses of Buckingham Palace, the Queen’s London home. It is used to pay for the hundreds of servants, the laundry bills, the royal kitchens and also for the horses and carriages which are used for ceremonies.

The Queen also has a private fortune. She owns shares worth £3 billion - she is Britain’s biggest private Stock Market player. She owns shares in companies like Shell, ICI, BP and Marks and Spencer.

The Queen is also one of the world’s biggest land and property owners. She owns land and buildings all over the world valued at £3 billion, mainly in Europe but also in the United States. Surprisingly, New York’s biggest property owner is .......Queen Elizabeth!

Her art collection is really big. There are 5,000 paintings and 30,000 drawings by masters such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, Rembrandt and Van Gogh. The total value of these works of art is around £9 billion. The Queen also has a stamp collection - the biggest and most valuable collection in the world!

She also has many homes. Her London home is Buckingham Palace, but she also sometimes lives in Windsor Castle, near London Airport, Holyrood House in Edinburgh, Balmoral in Scotland and her country home Sandringham in Norfolk. The British government pays most of the expenses for these homes.

How does the Queen travel between her different homes and the places she visits abroad every year? She owns several cars, including Rolls Royces, Daimlers, Bentleys and Land Rovers. She also sometimes uses the Royal Train which is owned and operated by British Rail. The Royal Yacht Britannia is paid for by the Ministry of Defence, and the planes she uses (5 planes and two helicopters) are operated by the Royal Air Force.
There are many other benefits if you are Queen. For example posting a letter is free and she doesn’t need to buy a television license.

The $64,000 dollar question is: What does she spend her money on? The Queen is a well-known racehorse owner and trainer and that is not a cheap hobby. She buys houses for her children - the house she bought for Andrew and Fergie cost £5 million. She also gives money to charity (though nobody knows how much).


10.24 Exercises for sending to your instructor


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