3. konditionaalia käytetään, kun kerrotaan mitä joku olisi tehnyt, tai mitä olisi tapahtunut.

Esim. I would have telephoned you yesterday if I had remembered your number!

Katso tätä lausetta:

I would have telephoned you yesterday   if   I had remembered your number.
          Olisin soittanut sinulle eilen   jos   olisin muistanut sinun numerosi.
          (päälause)   (if)   (sivulause)

Huomaa Suomen kielen ja Englannin kielen eroavaisuudet. Suomen kielessä 3. konditionaalia käytettäessä sekä pää- että sivulauseessa on sama rakenne. Englannin kielessä ainoastaan päälause on 3. konditionaalissa, ja sivulause (if-lause) on pluskvamperfektissa.

3. konditionaali muodostetaan apuverbeistä WOULD HAVE + PÄÄVERBIN 3. MUOTO kaikissa persoonissa.


Would have................. lyhennetään ‘d have

I would have sent you a letter if I had known your address.

We would have bought a bigger pool if we had had more money.

  I would have gone to the cinema     if     there had been a good film.
  I’d have gone to the cinema     if     there’d been a good film.
  We would have bought a new car     if     we had had enough money.
  We’d have bought a new car     if     we’d had enough money.
  You would have passed the exam     if     you had worked harder
  If he had telephoned         they would have told him the news.*
  If she had waited         she would have missed the bus.*
  They would have got the letter     if     you had posted it in time.
  They’d have got the letter     if     you’d posted it in time.

* Huom. Sivulause voi olla ennen päälausetta!

  I wouldn’t have gone there     if     I had known what it was like.
  She wouldn’t have won     if     she hadn’t cheated.
  We wouldn’t have remembered     if     you hadn’t told us.
  I wouldn’t have bought it     if     I hadn’t won Lotto.
  He wouldn’t have been injured     if     he had used a seat belt.
  Would you have eaten it     if     you had known what was in it?
  Would you have gone there     if     your friends hadn’t been there?
  Where would you have stayed     if     the hotel had been full?
  What would you have said     if     you had known?




Dialogue 1, making a call to someone you know.







Metalbox, Good morning

Hello, Matti Virta from Finnflex, Finland here. Could I speak to Leigh Plester please?

Just one moment, I'll put you through.

Thank you. (Brrring Brrring)


Good morning. Is that Leigh? This is Matti Virta from Finnflex.

Leigh:           Hello Matti, how are you?      
Matti:           Oh, I'm fine thanks, and yourself?      
Leigh:           Very well indeed, thank you. How's the weather there?      
Matti:           A little cold, actually, about minus ten. (slight pause). Now, the reason I'm phoning you, is.............................      

Hello, this is........ from..............

Could I speak to ........ please?

Good morning, is that .........?

I'm fine thanks, and yourself?

How's the weather there?

Now, the reason I'm ringing you is....

Dialogue 2, making a call to someone you don't know.

Switchboard:     Good morning, Craft Industries, can I help you?
Matti:     Good morning, Matti Virta from Finnflex here. May I speak to John Smith, please?
Switchboard:     It's ringing for you.
Matti:     Thank you. (Brrring Brrring)
John Smith:     Technical support. John Smith
Matti:     Good morning Mr. Smith. Matti Virta from Finnflex, Finland here.
John Smith:     Good morning. Now, what can I do for you, Mr Virta?

Good morning, can I help you?

May I speak to ....... please?

Now, what can I do for you?


Dialogue 3, making a call when you don't have a name







Good afternoon, Rollcraft. Can I help you?

Matti Virta, Finnflex Finland here, good afternoon. Could I speak to someone in the After Sales Department please?

Is it spare parts or repair service that you want?

Spare parts please.

Trying to connect you. (Brrring Brrring)

Spare parts, Fred Parks speaking.




Good afternoon, Matti Virta from Finnflex Finland here. I'd like to speak to someone who can give me information about spare parts for our XT 450 lathe.

Oh right. You want to speak to Paul North then. Just a moment I'll get him.

OK thanks.




Matti Virta, Finnflex, Finland. Hello. We've got one of your XT 450's and we need some information about spare parts........


Could I speak to someone in...?

I'd like to speak to someone who can...

...who can give me information about...

You want to speak to ....... then.

OK, thanks.

Dialogue 4, Matti is asked to hold

Switchboard:     Balfour Supplies, Good morning.
Matti:     Matti Virta from Finnflex, good morning. Could you put me through to the Technical Support Department.
Switchboard:     Just one moment. I'm sorry, the line's busy, would you like to hold?
Matti:     Well, I'm ringing from Finland. Is there a direct number to the Department?
Switchboard     No, I'm sorry. You have to go through the switchboard
Matti:     Well, I'll try again later then. Thank you, goodbye.
Switchboard:     Thank you, goodbye

Could you put me through to...?

Well, I'm ringing from Finland.

Is there a direct number to ...?

I'll try again later then. Thank you, goodbye.


11.6 Pronunciation practice




Dialogue 1, Matti gets a call from England, from someone he knows

Brrring Brrring

Matti:   Virta.
Paul Parker:   Hello, Matti?
Matti:   Yes, that's right.
Paul:   Good morning Matti, this is Paul Parker from Balfour Davey.
Matti:   Oh, good morning Paul. How are you?
Paul:   Fine thanks, how are you?
Matti:   Very well, how's the weather there today?
Paul:   It's been cold and wet all week.
Matti:   Oh dear, (slight pause). Now, how can I help you, Paul?
Paul:   I'm ringing about those papers you sent ...........


Yes, that's right.

Good morning, this is.... ...from .......

How's the weather today?

It's been cold and wet all week.

Oh dear.

How can I help you?

I'm ringing about ......

Dialogue 2, Matti gets a call from a stranger

Brring Brring

Matti:   Virta.
Mary:   Good morning. Am I speaking to Mr. Matti Virta?
Matti:   Yes.
Mary:   My name's Mary Cope, I'm with Colorplast in Reading England.
Matti:   Good morning, and how can I help you?
Mary:   Well, our company's got a new range of paints and I'm ringing you to tell you a little about this new range.
Matti:   I see.

Am I speaking to...?

I'm with....

How can I help you?

I see.

Dialogue 3, the person being called is not in

Brrring Brrring

Matti:   Virta.
John:   John White from Thorn here, good morning. Could I speak to Pekka Aho please?
Matti:   I'm sorry, he's not in the office at the moment.
John:   Oh, I see. Do you know when he'll be in?
Matti:   He'll probably be back this afternoon.
John:   OK, thanks. I'll ring this afternoon then. Bye.
Matti:   Goodbye.

I'm sorry, he's not in the office at the moment.

Do you know when he'll be in?

He'll probably be back ...................

I'll ring this afternoon, then.

Dialogue 4, Matti tries to call Peter.

Brrring Brrring

Mark: Technical Support Department.

Matti: Good morning. Matti Virta here. Is Peter Jones there?

Mark: I'm afraid he's away on business right now.

Matti: Oh, when will he be back?

Mark: He'll be in the office next Monday. Can anyone else help you?

Matti: Well, it's not so important. I'll ring Monday.

Mark: Right you are, then. Goodbye.

Matti: Goodbye.


Is ..................... there?

I'm afraid he's away on business right now.

When will he be back?

Can anybody else help you?



    away on business  
  the Manager's in Denmark  
  Sales Secretary's on a trip at the moment
I'm afraid he's on holiday right now
I'm sorry she's out just now
  the person you want's having lunch now
  Peter Jones's not in  
    just gone out  

11.8 Pronunciation practice - Listen and repeat these phrases



Dialogue: Matti takes a message

Brrring Brrring

Matti: Virta.

John: John Parrot, Colormix Ltd, good morning. Could I speak to Pentti Seppä please?

Matti: I'm sorry he's away on business today.

John: Will he be back tomorrow?

Matti: No, I'm sorry. He'll be back next Monday. Can anybody else help you? Or can I take a message?

John: Yes, could you tell him I called?

Matti: Certainly, could I have your name again, please?

John: Yes, it's Parrot, John Parrot.

Matti Could you spell that please?

John: Yes, P-A-R-R-O-T.

Matti: OK Mr Parrot. I'll tell him you called.

John: Thank you, good bye.


Can I take a message?

Could you tell him I called.

Could I have your name again, please

Could you spell that, please?

I'll tell him you called.

Dialogue: Matti leaves a message

Brrring Brrring

Tom Yeo:   Tom Yeo.
Matti:   Good morning. This is Matti Virta from Finland. Is Fred there?
Tom:   I'm sorry he's not. He's on holiday this week.
Matti:   I see, well, would you ask him to call me on Monday, please? It's fairly urgent.
Tom:   Certainly, what was your name?
Matti:   Matti Virta from Finnflex.
Tom:   Could you spell your name please?
Matti:   Yes of course, that's Matti M-A-T-T-I, and my surname Virta, that's V-I-R-T-A
Tom:   Got it, I'll tell him.

Would you ask him to call me?

It's fairly urgent.

My surname .....

Got it.


11.10 Pronunciation practice - Listen and repeat these phrases

11.11 Preposition practice Fill the gaps with suitable prepositions

11.12 General phone information


In Britain and the USA, a man rarely uses the title Mr. when giving his name.

It is usual to say both first name and surname.

This is Matti Virta, from Finnflex, Finland.

My name is Bond, James Bond.

In India, Sri Lanka, and in many parts of the far and middle east, many men WILL use the title Mr., without their first names.

This is Mr. Patel from Metalware, Madras.

A woman uses either her full name, or adds the title "Mrs" or "Miss"

Good morning, this is Cathy Salter from Abingdon.

Hello, I'm Miss Janet Sharp.

The term "Ms", is used by women who do not wish to say whether they are married or not. It is quite rare among British women, but slightly more common in the USA.


In Britain, some people answer the telephone by giving their telephone number, although inside firms it is more usual to give one's name.

Telephone numbers are given digit by digit in groups of three or four.

Double figures, e.g. 66 or 88 are stated "double six", or "double eight".

Treble figures, e.g. 444 or 555 are stated "four, double four" , or "five, double five".

Quadruple numbers, e.g. 7777 are stated "double seven, double seven"

So, the telephone number 931- 3490544 would be stated:

nine three one (pause) three four nine oh (pause) five double four.

The voice rises at the end of each group (this signifies there are more numbers to come), but it goes down at the end of the last group, to signify that this is the last group.

Practice saying the following telephone numbers 768 9465, 90-4562968,010-358-31-1658345, 971-885 9995, 966-8544732, 345 567, 922-3399777

The telephone alphabet.


The standard International Radio Telecommunications spelling system is often used for spelling over the telephone

A       ALPHA       ei
B       BRAVO       bii
C       CHARLIE       sii
D       DELTA       dii
E       ECHO       ii
F       FOXTROT       eff
G       GOLF       tjii
H       HOTEL       eitch
I       INDIA       ai
J       JULIETTE       tjei
K       KILO       kei
L       LIMA       ell
M       MIKE       em
N       NOVEMBER       en
O       OSCAR       ou
P       PAPA       pii
Q       QUEBEC       kjiuu
R       ROMEO       aar
S       SIERRA       ess
T       TANGO       tii
U       UNIFORM       jiuu
V       VICTOR       vii
W       WHISKEY       daböl jiuu
X       X-RAY       eks
Y       YANKEE       wai
Z       ZULU       zed


NOTE:       Ä is said as A with two dots
        Ö is said as O with two dots
        Å is said as A with a circle on top


Spelling your name

Spelling your name is like giving numbers, groups of 3 or 4 letters (5 if the whole name has 5 letters) with a pause after each group. The voice goes up at the end of each group except the last.


11.13 Listening comprehension


11.14 SMALL TALK - Talking about Finland's political system

It can sometimes be very dangerous to talk about politics with someone you do not know very well, other subjects to avoid are religion and sex.

However, it is quite acceptable to talk about the political system and type of government of a country.

Matti and Peter are discussing the political system in Finland

Peter: What kind of government do you have in Finland?

Matti: Terrible! No, but seriously, Finland has a coalition government. We've got very many political parties here and none has more than thirty percent of the vote.

Peter: Which are the main parties?

Matti: The main parties here are the Social Democrats, the Centre Party and the National Coalition Party, that's rather like the Conservatives in England. Then there are many small parties like the Swedish People's Party, the Finnish Christian Union, the Greens and the Democratic League.

Peter: Are they all represented in the government?

Matti: Most of them are.

Peter: How often do you have elections, Matti?

Matti: Every four years, but the President is elected every six years.

Peter: Ah yes. You had a Presidential election here a few years ago, didn't you? There was a lot in our papers about it at the time. A woman nearly got in, didn't she?

Matti: That's right. Elisabeth Rehn.

Peter: Well, we've had quite a lot of experience of women leaders in Britain. By the way, what's the name of your President?

Matti: Martti Ahtisaari.

Peter: How much power does your President have?

Matti: Mmmm, difficult to say really. Many years ago the President had a lot of power, but nowadays not so much. He's more of a figurehead.

Peter: Rather like our Queen then.


11.17 Idioms - Do and Make

The word "make" usually means construction. and the word "do" usually means action

He has made some pizzas

He’s doing his homework

Both verbs have many idiomatic uses. These must be learnt by heart.


If we "make" something - we often produce, create or construct something that was not there before:

      an effort       He made an effort to answer the question.    
      a mistake       You’re making a big mistake if you marry him.    
      a decision       We must make a decision now.    
      a trip       I made a long trip to Scotland last week.    
to make     a fortune       Mike made a fortune on the stock market.    
      a speech       The Prime Minister made a long speech.    
      a profit       Our company made a good profit last year.    
      trouble       She makes trouble wherever she goes.    
      an excuse       She didn’t want to go so she made an excuse.    
Make also means "to force"
      cry       Mary hit her brother and made him cry.  
to make somebody     pay       I’ll make you pay for breaking that window.  
      do something       She made her children tidy their rooms.  
Make also means "cause to be"
      happy       She made them happy by giving them money.      
to make somebody     sad       The news made everybody sad.      
      angry       Don’t make me angry!      




He does a lot of business on the Internet

Do often means "activity"

What are you doing? I’m eating

What does he do? He’s a teacher

DO also means "perform"

business They do a lot of business in the USA.

homework The students do homework every evening.

a crossword He did a crossword while he was waiting.

housework She never does any housework.

to do a job Can you do a job for me, please?

the shopping We always do the shopping on Saturday.

the cleaning Who does the cleaning in your office?

the washing up She’s very lazy, she never does the washing up.

the gardening Her husband does all the gardening.

11.18 Do or make? (use the verb in the correct form)


11.19 KEY FUNCTION - Giving advice

Children shouldn’t play with matches!

There are many ways to give advice - Here are some of the main ways:


I smoke less.

You do more exercise.

He should go swimming every day.

She do her homework more carefully.

We ought to practice English every day.

They read the newspaper.

I drink so much coffee.

You eat late in the evening.

He shouldn’t spend so much money.

She ought not to stay out so late.

We oughtn’t to take so many risks.

They watch so much TV.

How to learn English

If you really want to learn English you should try to spend at least 10 minutes every day learning to use new words. You ought to write each new word or phrase on a card and you should write the Finnish meaning on the other side. You should always carry some cards with you and if you have some spare time, for example while you are sitting in a bus, or in a train, take out the cards, look at one side and try to remember what is on the other side - you should also try to think of a sentence in English using that word.

You should also write short stories in English. You shouldn’t be afraid of making mistakes because you learn through your mistakes.

You should also try to practice speaking English whenever you have the opportunity.


11.21 Reading for Pleasure - Getting your car ready for Winter

The cold weather is coming. How should I get my car ready for winter?

First of all, DON’T PANIC! Modern cars are built to withstand severe winter conditions. Nearly all manufacturers test their cars thoroughly in very cold conditions. In fact, many car manufacturers use northern Lapland, where the temperatures can go down to -35o C, as their winter test centre. On this year’s Ford Overland Competition two Ford Mondeos successfully crossed Siberia in temperatures down to -60o C. One expert told us " Most new cars are OK at - 30o C, but before the weather gets too cold you should check the battery, anti-freeze, engine oil and screenwash".

What anti-freeze should I use?

You should buy a top quality anti-freeze. Read your car manual to see what brand the manufacturer recommends. Read the instructions on the container for the recommended percentage mix of water and anti-freeze. A 50-50 mixture should keep the radiator unfrozen to about -45o C.

Should I use a different engine oil in winter?

Most engine oil is 20 - 50 multigrade, which is a medium viscosity oil, and this is fine for most winter conditions. If you are going to spend long periods in cold regionss you should use an oil with lower viscosity, for example 10-30. For really cold weather the best oil is 5-50 multigrade synthetic oil.

What about the battery?

You should check your battery and replace it if necessary. Older cars sometimes have small batteries which will turn the engine over for only one minute. A larger battery could turn the engine over for three minutes in cold conditions.


If you are driving on snow and ice all winter you should use studded tyres. You should first check that you are allowed to use them because they are not legal in every country. If they are not legal you can buy snow chains which you can use on snow and ice. Make sure you have good-quality tyres. In extreme cold rubber becomes brittle.

Screenwash fluid?

Motorists ought to use a special screenwash fluid in winter. This is usually a mixture of detergent and isopropanol. Read the instructions on the bottle. The lower the temperature, the higher the proportion of screenwash.

Should I use a petrol additive?

If the temperatures are below zero for long periods you should add anti-ice to the petrol. This is isopropanol and it dissolves the ice-crystals that sometimes form in petrol. 1 litre is usually sufficient for 50 litres of petrol.

What about lights?

Check that all your lights are working. Extra spot lamps are useful in northern areas. Drive with dipped-beam headlamps also in daytime.

How should I start my car on a freezing cold morning?

Brush the snow off and scrape the ice off the ice from the windows. Start the engine and run it slowly until it is warm. You should never drive fast with a cold engine. Make sure that your windscreen heater is working properly.

Should I change my driving habits in winter?

Yes, you must drive more carefully in winter. Do everything more slowly because braking distances are longer. Don’t accelerate fast, don’t make sudden movements on the steering wheel and don’t drive too close to the car in front. Remember too, that you may find patches of black ice on bridges and under trees.

What should I do if my car skids?

Take your foot off the accelerator, put the clutch down, NEVER brake. If the back wheels slide into the middle of the road, steer in that direction, if they slide towards the side of the road, steer that way.



11. Exercises for sending to your instructor


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