Englannin kielessä on monta menetelmää futuurin ilmaisemiseen. Kun puhutaan aikomuksista tai sovituista asioista käytetään yleensä kestopreseensmuotoa (kpl 3) tai "going to"-rakennetta (kpl 5).

Futuuri muodostetaan käytämällä apuverbiä WILL + pääverbin perusmuotoa. WILL yleensä lyhennetään ‘ll:ksi, varsinkin puhekielessä.

Seuraavissa tapauksissa käytetään WILL-rakennetta:

1. Kun haluamme kertoa mitä tulee tapahtumaan tulevaisuudessa, tai kun ennustamme mitä tulee tapahtumaan.

The winner of this game WILL PLAY in the finals.

Computers WILL BECOME better and cheaper.

Prices will rise next year.

2. Kun kerromme päätöksistä, jotka olemme juuri tehneet ja jotka eivat olleet suunniteltuja.

I think I’LL HAVE a pizza for lunch.

I’LL FINISH this job by 4 o’clock.

I think I’ll watch TV.

3. Kun teemme lupauksen.

I’LL SEND you a postcard from Mexico.

I’LL BE there on time.

I’ll send you a postcard.

4. Kun esitämme ehdotuksen.

WILL YOU COME to the theatre with me?

WILL YOU HAVE dinner with me this evening.

Will you come for a run?

5. Kun tarjoamme tehdä (tai olla tekemättä) jotain.

I’LL HELP you with your homework.

I’LL DO the washing up.

I WON’T make a noise, I’LL BE quiet.

I’ll bring you a fish!


I       go       I’ll go shopping tomorrow.
He       resign       He’ll resign next week.
She       buy       She’ll buy a new car next year.
It   will (‘ll)   rain       It’ll rain this evening.
You       need       You’ll need more money.
We       arrive       We’ll arrive at 6 o’ clock.
They       start       They’ll start the meeting at 3 o’clock.

John’ll come to the airport with us. There’ll be a lot of people at the football match. Mr and Mrs Smith’ll arrive on Monday

I       be       I won’t be in London next week.
He       stay       He won’t stay very long.
She       bring       She won’t bring her boyfriend.
It   will not (won’t)   snow       It won’t snow this evening.
You       sleep       You won’t sleep on the plane.
We       meet       We won’t meet them this time.
They       understand       They won’t understand us.

Mary won’t be in her office tomorrow. Jane and Mike won’t stay very long in Florida. There won’t be many people there.

    I   be       Will I be too early if I arrive at 6 a.m.?
    he   phone       Will he phone us tonight?
    she   stay       Will she stay here overnight?
Will   it   rain       Will it rain tomorrow?
    you   help       Will you help us, please?
    we   have       Will we have enough time?
    they   return       Will they return by nightfall?

Will John be here later? Will the Smiths come to the party? Will there be enough room for us?

When   will   my car   be   ready?  
How many times   will   you   go   to England next year?  
How long   will   the journey   take?      
What   will   the weather   be like   in August?  
How much money   will   we   need   in Mexico?  
Will you go to school tomorrow?   Yes, I’ll go to school tomorrow.   Yes, I will*
    No, I won’t go to school tomorrow.   No, I won’t
Will he come home next week?   Yes, he’ll come home next week.   Yes, he will*
    No, he won’t come home next week.   No, he won’t

*MUISTA Vaikka Brittiläiset mieluummin käyttävät lyhenteitä kuten I’ll, he’ll jne, lyhyen "Yes" vastauksen kanssa on käytettävä koko WILL sanaa



Apuverbiä SHALL käytetään yksikön ja monikon 1. persoonan kanssa (I ja We) kun kysytään neuvoa tai lupaa:

Shall I put the milk in the fridge? Laitanko maidon jääkaappiin

What shall I buy?


7.2 Reading text - The Weather Forecast


Good evening , here is the weather forecast for tomorrow.

First, southern England. It’ll be cool and sunny in the morning and it’ll become warmer in the afternoon. In the evening there will be some cloud and you can expect scattered showers. Temperatures will be around 8 degrees Centigrade in the morning, rising to 17 degrees in the afternoon.

Central England and Wales. There’ll be frost in some areas this evening, so the morning will be quite cold in most places. It’ll become slightly warmer by mid-day but heavy clouds will move in from the west and it will be rainy for most of the afternoon. It’ll be quite windy and the skies will clear by late afternoon or early evening and there will be some sunshine. Temperatures will be around 4 degrees in the morning, rising to about 12 degrees in the afternoon.

Northern England. The heavy rain of the last few days will continue all day tomorrow. But there is some good news, towards the evening the clouds will start to clear and the rain will lessen, and by late evening the skies will clear and you should have a sunny day on Wednesday. Temperatures will be around 4 degrees in the morning, rising to 10 in the afternoon.

Scotland. The weather in Scotland tomorrow will be about the same as today. The morning will start off sunny but quite cold, but in the afternoon there will be rain in most areas. There will be more snow in the Highlands, so at least the skiers can be happy. Temperatures will be between 3 and 5 degrees in the Lowlands and southern Scotland, and in northern Scotland and the Highlands the temperatures will be around zero or minus 1.


7.4 Predictions

7.6 Exercise - Making suggestions

7.7 Pronunciation practice - Listen and repeat

7.8 KEY GRAMMAR POINT - probably, sure, expect, think

7.9 Quick exercise - Answer these questions

7.10 Listening comprehension

7.12 KEY FUNCTION British Money

7.13 Pronunciation practice - Listen and repeat these prices

7.14 Listening comprehension



7.20 Reading for pleasure - Howard Hughes , a genius who went mad

Howard Hughes was one of the most interesting figures of the 20th century. He was born on Christmas Eve, 1905 in Houston, Texas, to very wealthy parents - his father owned a large oil-drilling company. He was a brilliant child and was always top of the class at school. After leaving school he studied engineering at the California Institute of Technology and at the Rice Institute of Technology in Houston

When he was just 17 his father died and the young Hughes inherited $750,000 and became the Managing Director of the family firm, the Hughes Tool Company. Hughes wanted more from life than being a businessman and in 1926, at the age of 20, he moved to Hollywood and used his great wealth to become a film producer.

He was just 20 when he married Elli Rice, but their marriage lasted less than three years, and they divorced in 1928. His career as a film producer was very successful. The most well-known of his films were "Hell’s Angels", in 1930, and "The Front Page", one year later. In 1941 he made a film called "The Outlaw", which created a scandal. The film starred the actress Jane Russell.

The great love in Howard Hughes’ life was aviation. He was fascinated by aeroplanes. He loved flying them and he also used his engineering skills to design them. In 1933, while he was living in Hollywood, he worked as an airline pilot - he changed his name for this job because he wanted it to be a secret. Hughes was the founder of the Hughes Aircraft Company and he started to design planes. As a pilot he broke many speed records - and in 1935 he became the fastest pilot in the world when he flew at 563 km/h. He also set a record for flying round the world - he did it in 91 hours and 14 minutes in 1938 and President Roosevelt gave him a special aviation award. During the Second World War he designed and manufactured war planes. Perhaps the most famous plane he designed was the eight-engined flying boat, The Spruce Goose, designed to carry 750 passengers - it flew just once.

Hughes had a wide range of business interests - he controlled Trans World Airlines from 1959 until 1966 and he owned many hotels and casinos in Las Vegas.

In 1958 he disappeared from public life and lived in complete seclusion. He did all his business through a close circle of associates. He became paranoid about germs and lived in complete privacy and security in luxury hotels. He ate very little and used a lot of drugs.

On April 5th, 1976, while in an aeroplane travelling from Mexico to Texas, his heart finally stopped beating - the drugs he used had killed him. He left over 2 billion dollars.


7. Exercises for sending to your instructor


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