KONDITIONAALI 1: Käytetään silloin kun halutaan kertoa, mitä tehdään siinä tapauksessa, että jokin tulee MAHDOLLISESTI tapahtumaan.


I’ll stay home this afternoon

I won’t go to the cinema

We’ll come by train

What will you do

What will you say










it rains.

there’s a western.

the car isn’t ready.

it snows?

he asks you to marry him?


Jos sivulause on kielteinen, IF...NOT voidaan korvata UNLESS-sanalla.

I’ll play golf this afternoon if it doesn’t rain. I’ll play golf unless it rains.

You won’t learn English unless you work harder!


9.2 Quick exercise - Please translate these sentences



KONDITIONAALI 2 - WOULD: Verbimuoto, joka koostuu would-apuverbistä ja pääverbin perusmuodosta, vastaa Suomen kielen isi-päätettä.
  I would go there.   =   Menisin sinne.
  He would buy it   =   Hän ostaisi sen.
  We wouldn’t do it   =   Me emme tekisi sitä.
Konditionaalia käytetään kun halutaan kertoa mitä tapahtuisi, tai mitä joku tekisi mikäli jokin tietty ehto täytettäisiin.
  I would buy a new car   IF   I had enough money.
  Ostaisin uuden auton,   JOS   minulla olisi riittävästi rahaa.

HUOM! IF-sanan jälkeinen verbi on englanniksi imperfektissä, eikä konditionaalissa, kuten Suomen kielessä!!!

  Päälause:       Sivulause:  
  I would buy a horse   if   I had enough money.  
WOULD lyhenee puhekielessä muotoon ‘d:   WOULD NOT lyhenee muotoon wouldn’t:
I would   =   I’d                     I wouldn’t            
You would   =   You’d                     You wouldn’t            
He would   =   He’d                     etc.            
She would   =   She’d                                  
We would   =   We’d                                  
They would   =   They’d                                  
I would call the police if somebody stole my car.     I’d call the police if somebody stole my car.
You would learn French if you lived in France.     You’d learn French if you lived in France.
He would retire if he was* 65 years old.     He’d retire if he was* 65 years old.
They would go skiing if there was* more snow.     They’d go skiing if there was* more snow.
If we had a yacht we would sail round the world**     If we had a yacht we’d sail round the world.

* If-lauseissa voi käyttää were-muotoa was:n sijasta. Esim: He would retire if he were 65 years old, mutta modernissa englanninkielessä were-muotoa käytetään vain yksikön 1. persoonan jälkeen (I were).

** Huomaa että sivulause voi sijaita myös päälausen edessä.

I wouldn’t take an umbrella if the sun was shining*
He wouldn’t sell his car if the engine worked well.
You wouldn’t be so angry if you knew the real reason.
They wouldn’t learn if the teacher didn’t make them work so hard.
What would you do if you won Lotto?
Where would you go if you were very ill?
What would you do if you wanted to stop smoking?
Would you visit the Pyramids if you went to Egypt?

Kohteliaassa puheessa käytetään aina would-sanaa

Would you come this way, please.     =   Tulisitko tätä tietä, ole hyvä.
I would recommend the fish.     =   Suosittelisin kalaa.
I would like* to try this jacket     =   Haluaisin kokeilla tätä takkia.
I’d like* to leave now.     =   Haluaisin lähteä nyt.
Would you like* tea or coffee     =   Haluaisitko teetä tai kahvia?
I‘d like to know what "stew" means.     =   Haluaisin tietää mitä "stew" tarkoittaa.

* Huomaa että like-verbi merkitsee haluta ainoastaan would-apuverbin kanssa. Muulloin se merkitsee jostakin pitämistä.

I like tea = pidän teestä       I’d like tea = Haluaisin teetä

Konditionaalia käytetään myös kun halutaan antaa neuvoja.

If I were you, I’d work harder.       Jos olisin sinä, työskentelisin kovemmin.
I’d take an aspirin, if I were you       Sinuna ottaisin aspiriinin.

9.6 Exercise - Give good advice to these people


Matti works for a Finnish company Finnstar. He invites his English visitor to lunch in the canteen.

Dialogue 1 Matti invites Peter to lunch in the canteen.


Matti: Look, it's 12.00. Would you like to stop for lunch now?

Peter: Yes, that's a good idea. I'm beginning to feel a little peckish.

Matti: Right. We usually eat in the canteen. I hope that's OK with you.

Peter: Yes, that would be fine. Is your canteen far from here?

Matti: No, not far at all. The canteen's opposite the office building as you come into the plant. It's just a short walk from here.

Peter: I see. Is it all right to leave my stuff here?

Matti: Yes, of course. But you might need your coat. It's rather cold.


Would you like to stop for lunch now?

I'm beginning to feel a little peckish.

We usually eat in the canteen.

I hope that's OK with you.

Yes, that sounds fine.

You might need your coat - it's rather cold.


Dialogue 2 Matti and Peter arrive at the canteen.

Matti: (opens door for Peter) After you.

Peter: Right, thank you.

Matti: Come this way. I hope the queue's not too long.

Peter: Do many people eat here?

Matti: Yes, it's very popular. Now, help yourself to a tray. Knives, forks and spoons are here. The serviettes are in this box.

Peter: Right you are.


After you.

Come this way.

I hope the queue's not too long.

Help yourself to a tray.

Knives, forks and spoons are here.

The serviettes are in this box.

Right you are.


Dialogue 3 Matti explains the menu to Peter.

Peter: The food certainly smells good, what is it?

Matti: Let's look at the menu. There's a choice. Finnish pea soup with pancakes and jam, or Karjalan paisti, that's Carelian meat stew, with potatoes and salad.

Peter: Pea soup for me, please.

Matti: I'll have the same (orders food). Help yourself to bread and butter.

Peter: Thank you.

Matti: Take a glass and help yourself to a drink. There's water, orange juice, milk, buttermilk, or what we call "home beer."

Peter: What on earth's that?

Matti: It's a drink made from malted barley and sugar, and slightly fermented. It's really rather good. I usually drink it. I would recommend it.

Peter: Yes, I’d like some.


Let's look at the menu.

There's a choice.

Finnish pea soup with pancakes and jam.

Carelian meat stew.

I'll have the same.

Help yourself to ................

It's what we call "home beer".

It's really rather good.

I’d like some.

Dialogue 4 They go to their table.

Matti: Would you like to sit here, or would you prefer to sit by the window?

Peter: This is fine.

Matti: Could you pass the salt, please?

Peter: Certainly. Here you are.

Matti: Thank you. How's the pea soup?

Peter: It really is excellent. Do you always eat this well?

Matti: Yes we do. The canteen has a good reputation.


Would you like to sit here?

Could you pass the salt, please?

How's the pea soup?

It really is excellent.

Do you always eat this well?


Dialogue 5 Canteen small talk.

Matti: Do you have a canteen at your place of work, Peter?

Peter: Yes, we do. But not everybody uses it.

Matti: Oh.

Peter: Well, the food’s not very good. People would use the canteen if the food was better. Also, our workplace is near the centre of town, and many people use the lunch hour to go to the shops.

Matti: You have a whole hour for lunch?

Peter: Well, we call it a lunch hour, but it's only 45 minutes, in fact.

Your canteen is very clean and modern.

Matti: Oh yes. Nobody would eat here if it was dirty. We're quite proud of our canteen.

Peter: Are the meals expensive here?

Matti: They're subsidised actually, we pay about £2 for a meal. If the food wasn’t subsidised lunch would cost about £4.

Peter: £2 is very reasonable for such good quality. If our meals were as cheap as that the canteen would be more popular.


Do you have a canteen at your place of work?

You have a whole hour for lunch?

It's only 45 minutes, in fact.

We're quite proud of our canteen.

They're subsidised actually.


Dialogue 6 Coffee to finish.

Matti: I hope you enjoyed your meal, Peter.

Peter: Yes, I did, very much. Thank you. It was a big meal. I’d put on weight very quickly if I ate here every day.

Matti: Yes, it’s easy to eat too much. We usually have a cup of coffee or tea after the meal. Would you like one?

Peter: I’d like a cup of coffee please. Do we help ourselves?

Matti: I'll bring you one, you like your coffee white, don't you?

Peter: That's right.

Matti: Would you like a pastry with your coffee?

Peter: Not at the moment, thank you. I'm quite full.


I hope you enjoyed your meal.

Yes, I did, very much. Thank you.

We usually have a cup of coffee after the meal.

Do we help ourselves?

I'll bring you one, you like your coffee white, don't you?

Would you like a pastry with your coffee?


9.9 Pronunciation practice - Listen and repeat these phrases.

9.12 Food, food, food


This is Mike, he gave up smoking two years ago. He no longer smokes.

He used to smoke.

He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day.

1. USED TO käytetään verbin perusmuodon kanssa. Sitä käytetään kun kerrotaan jostakin, joka tapahtui säännöllisesti menneisyydessa, mutta ei tapahdu enää.

He used to smoke = Hän tupakoi säännöllisesti ennen (mutta hän ei tupakoi enää).

I used to go to the cinema a lot. = Menin usein elokuvateatteriin (mutta en mene enää).

2. DIDN’T USE TO (tai NEVER USED TO) kielteisessä muodossa tarkoittaa, että jokin ei tapahtunut säännöllisesti menneisyydessä, MUTTA NYT SE TAPAHTUU.

He didn’t use to eat fish = Hän ei syönyt ennen kalaa (mutta nyt hän syö). Vaikka asiaa ei mainita, se on itsestään selvää.

We never used to drink coffee in the morning. = Emme ennen juoneet kahvia aamuisin (mutta nyt juomme).

3. USED TO - käytetään myöskin kuvailemaan tilanteita, jotka joskus olivat, mutta joita ei enää ole.

We used to live in London, but now we live in a small village.

That building used to be a cinema, but now it’s a bingo hall.

There used to be a lot of fish in this lake.

There never used to be many foreigners in Finland.

4. Kysymyksessä käytetään DID ... USE TO?
Did you use to live in Leeds?       Asuitko aikaisemmin Leedsissä?
Did he use to work for Amstrad?       Oliko hän joskus töissä Amstradilla?
Didn’t she use to wear glasses?       Eikö hän olekin joskus käyttanyt silmälaseja?
BE / BECOME / GET USED TO olla tottunut/tottua

Pete is an English teacher who lives in Finland. When he first drove a car here, it was difficult for him because people drive on the right.

Pete wasn’t used to driving on the right. He was used to driving on the left.

He has lived in Finland for three years. Now he is used to driving on the right.

1. Rakennetta be + USED TO + verbin...ING-muoto käytetään, kun halutaan kertoa että olemme / olimme tottuneet johonkin.


We are used to his bad manners       Olemme tottuneet hänen huonoihin käytöstapoihinsa
She is used to working hard       Hän on tottunut työskentelemaan kovasti.
I was used to driving on the left       Olen tottunut ajamaan tien vasenta laitaa.
We weren’t used to drinking so much coffee       Emme ollut tottuneet juomaan niin paljon kahvia.

2. USED TO käytetään become ja get verbien kanssa kun kerromme, että totuimme / olemme tottuneet johonkin.

I became used to driving on the right.       Totuin ajamaan oikealla puolella.
I never got used to their drinking habits       En koskaan tottunut heidän juomatapoihinsa.
Don’t worry, you’ll get used to it       Älä sure, totut siihen kyllä.

9.16 Exercise

9.17 Exercise - Read these situations and then write sentences using be / get used to

9.19 Listening comprehension



The Republic of Singapore, in south east Asia is known as a city-state. The city of Singapore has many sights and attractions and it attracts tourists from all over the world.

It is connected to the Malaysian mainland by a 1.1 kilometers long causeway that carries a road and railway, Indonesia lies to the west and south. The total land area is about 620 square kilometers which includes 57 nearby islets. The main island is 42 kilometers wide from east to west, and 23 kilometres from north to south. Singapore is largely flat and low-lying with many low hills. Bukit Timah, the highest point, is only 162 meters above sea level.

Singapore means Lion City and it is a modern metropolis with one of the world's busiest ports. At the same time, the small tropical island has kept many elements of its colonial past. Singapore is home to just under 3 million people, the population density is 4400 per square kilometre, which makes it one of the most crowded countries of the world. 77% of the people are Chinese, 15% are Malay, 6% are Indian and 2% are Eurasian or European - relations between all these different ethnic groups are very good. Because there are so many ethnic groups, there are four official languages - Malay, Chinese (Mandarin), Tamil and English. The government stresses the need for bilingualism, and encourages people to use Mandarin. English is used as the language of administration.

Exploring Singapore’s world of many cultures is a fascinating experience. Places like Chinatown, Little India and Arab Street are the result of Singapore’s multi-cultural heritage. The best way for tourists to see these places is on foot. Arab Street is in the southeastern part of Singapore. Here you find shops selling specialities such as beautiful batik, silks, lace, perfumes and basketware. This area is also the Muslim centre of Singapore - the Sultan Mosque is here and also many shops selling religious items for Moslems - headscarves, prayer beads, mats and literature. There are many Moslem restaurants too with superb food (but no alcohol).

In Chinatown you find shops selling traditional Chinese handicraft, silks and Chinese medicines. There are also many food-stores with Chinese delicacies such as snakes, birds’ nests and hundred-year-old eggs. Here you find Chinese temples and restaurants.

A walk down Singapore’s Serangoon Road is like taking a trip to India. The architecture is typically Indian and if you look above the doorways you’ll see strings of dried mango leaves, and Indian sign of blessing and good fortune. Here are some of Singapore’s finest Indian restaurants.

Food is extremely important to the Singaporeans. There is a wide range of local and international cuisine.

The Chinese have produced one of the world's greatest and most varied cuisines, and it can be sampled in Singapore. The Indian community has also got a rich cuisine with the emphasis on highly spiced food. The Malay and Indonesian style of cooking is also delicious - they use a lot of coconut in their food. Whatever kind of food you like, Chinese, Indian, Malay, Indonesian, Western - it’s all here in Singapore.

Last but not least, Singapore is a shopper’s paradise. People come from all over the world to shop in Singapore because nearly everything is tax-free. Many goods are cheaper here than in the country where they were made. There are huge shopping centres filled with shops selling cameras, electrical goods, clothing, furniture, watches, perfumes and silks. Open 7 days a week from 10 a.m . until late evening. Are there enough customers? Yes, last year over 5 million tourists visited Singapore!



9. Exercises for sending to your instructor


Takaisin alkuun

Takaisin etusivulle