Kun haluat kertoa jollekulle mitä Fred sanoi, voit:

Toistaa Fredin sanoja (suora): Fred said "I’m very busy"

tai käyttää "reported speech" (epäsuora): Fred said (that) he was very busy

vertaa: Fred said " 1 am very busy ".

Fred said he was very busy

1. Kun käyttämme "epäsuora esitys" me yleensä puhumme menneisyydestä, ja verbit yleensä muuttuvat imperfekti muotoon. esim:
am/is => was     are => were     have/has => had     will => would              
can => could     do => did     want => wanted     have/has to => had to              

Here are more things that Fred said:

  suora esitys         epäsuora esitys
  I work too much         He said he WORKED too hard
  I need a long holiday         He said he NEEDED a long holiday
  My wife doesn’t understand me         He said his wife DIDN’T understand him
  I’ll start work at 6 o’clock         He said he WOULD start work at 6 o’clock
  I can’t play golf this weekend         He said he COULDN’T play golf this weekend
  I must finish my report         He said he HAD TO finish his report.
2. Jos suoran esityksen verbi muoto on imperfektissä, se ei muutu (tai voimme käyttää pluskvamperfektiä)
suora esitys     epäsuora esitys        
I worked hard all day     He said he worked hard   tai   He said he HAD WORKED hard
I went to Helsinki     He said he went to Pori   tai   He said he HAD BEEN to Pori
I was working     He said he was working   tai   He said he HAD BEEN working
3. Jos kerrot jostain tilanteesta joka yhä jatkuu verbimuotoa ei tarvitse muuttaa. Must, might, should, could would ja verbit pluskvamperfektin muodossa eivät muuttaa
  suora esitys       epäsuora esitys  
  Los Angeles is bigger than Boston       He said that Los Angeles is (tai was)bigger than Boston  
  I want to buy a new car       She said she wants (tai wanted) to buy a new car.  
  We must work harder       He said we must work harder  
  We had finished already       They said they had finished already  
4. SAY ja TELL Jos kerrot kenelle puhutaan, käytä TELL. Muuten käytä SAY.
  suora esitys       epäsuora esitys  
  I played tennis       John TOLD me he played tennis  
          John SAID he played tennis  
5. Kun suorassa esityksessä on käskyjä tai tarjouksia, epäsuorassa esityksessä ne ilmenevät infinitiivimuodossa (TO + perusverbi)
  suora esitys       epäsuora esitys  
  Don’t shout       He told me NOT TO SHOUT.  
  Buy a new one       They told us TO BUY a new one.  
  Please open the window       She asked me TO OPEN the window.  

12.3 Said or told - täydentäkää

12.4 MESSAGES -Peter Hill is a personal assistant at United Talent Studios. His boss, Marcia Randall, was away on business last week in Los Angeles. While she was away Peter took many messages for her. Listen to their conversation and look at the notes.



9.00 Gary Macfarlane phoned - he can’tcome to the meeting next week, he’ll phone you next week

12.00 Ticket Agency rang -- they have got your tickets for the new musical,they will send them by post



11.00 Autospeedy rang - they haven’t repaired your car yet, they are still waiting for a part.



12.00 Autospeedy rang - they’ve got the part now and the car will be ready on Friday afternoon.



15.00 Autospeedy rang. They finished repairing your car, the mechanic took it for a test drive and the engine caught fire. It’ll need a new engine so the car won’t be ready for another 2 weeks. Because it’s their fault they’ll lend a car until yours is ready.



9.00 Mike telephoned - he won’t be in the office next week (his grandfather in Australia has died - Mike will have to fly to Australia and make the arrangements. He’ll be back on the 24th.



11.30 Mike Murray phone - please can Marcia ring him as soon as she gets back. It’s very urgent

13.00 Carsons rang - please cancel their order for 100 tickets- for the Rolling Stones concert. They want to go to the Tom Jones concert instead



9.00 Molly Malone called. She wants to change her appointment from Thursday to Wednesday. She’s going to the dentist on Thursday.

Marcia Good morning, Peter. Could you come into my office, please.

Peter Good morning Marcia, how was the trip?

Marcia Hectic, but fun. Were there many messages for me last week?

Peter Quite a few, would you like to go through them now?

Marcia Yes please

Peter Gary Macfarlane phoned on Monday. He said he couldn’t come to the meeting next week.

Marcia Oh dear. Did he say when he could come?

Peter No, but he said he’d call you this week.

Marcia Oh OK. Go on

Peter The ticket agency phoned. They said that they had got your tickets for the new musical and that they would send them by post.

Marcia Splendid. Have they come yet?

Peter Yes, they’re in your in-tray.

Marcia Good

Peter Autospeedy rang on Tuesday morning to say that they hadn’t repaired your car yet. They were waiting for a spare part.

Marcia Oh dear, what a nuisance. When did they think the part would come?

Peter Well, Marcia, er.. they rang again on Thursday and said that they had got the part and the car would be ready by last Friday afternoon.

Marcia Oh, that’s good. So it’s ready now. Could you pick it up this morning please, Peter.

Peter I’m sorry Marcia, but Autospeedy rang again on Friday afternoon. The mechanic had taken it for a test drive and the engine had caught fire. They said you would need a new engine and that the car wouldn’t be ready for two weeks.

Marcia Two weeks! I can’t wait two weeks.

Peter It’s all right Marcia, keep calm. They said that because it was their fault they would lend you a car until yours was ready.

Marcia Oh, well, that’s all right then.

Peter Mike telephoned on Wednesday. He said he wouldn’t be in the office next week. He told me his grandfather had died and that he would have to go to Australia and make the arrangements.

Marcia When will he be back?

Peter He said he’d be back on the 24th.

Marcia I see - Anything else?

Peter Yes, Mike Murray phoned on Thursday and asked if you could ring him as soon as you got back. He said it was very urgent.

Marcia I’ll do that this morning. Anything else?

Peter Carsons asked you to cancel their order for 100 tickets to the Rolling Stones Concert.

Marcia Did they say why?

Peter Yes, they said they wanted to go to the Tom Jones concert instead.

Marcia OK, anything else?

Peter Yes, just one more. Molly Malone rang and said she

wanted to change her appointment from Wednesday to

Thursday, because she was going to the dentist on


Marcia Thank you Peter




Britain has two systems for measuring - the imperial system ( feet, inches, yards, miles etc.), and the metric system (centimetres, metres etc.)

The Imperial system:

    12 inches = 1 foot     ( 12 ins = 1 ft )  
    3 feet = 1 yard     ( 3 ft = 1 yd)  
    1760 yards = 1 mile     (1760 yds = 1 ml)  
            centimetres   long    
            feet   high    
We usually say:   It’s   x   yards   deep    
            kilometres   wide    

How long is a football pitch? It’s 110 yards long

        height           inches
        width           centimetres
We can also say:   It has a   length   of   x   kilometres
        depth           miles

A football field is 100 metres long and 40 metres wide. It has an area of 4000 square metres.

m2 is square metres     cm2 is square centimetres     in2 is square inches

The apartment has an area of 75 m2 ( seventy-five square metres)


The metric system is becoming more common in Britain, but they still use the imperial system

16 ounces = 1 pound     ( 16 oz = 1 lb)     (1 oz = 28.35g)
112 pounds = 1 hundredweight     ( 112 lb = 1 cwt)     ( 1 lb = 0.4536 kg)
20 hundredweight = 1 ton     (20 cwt = 1 ton)     ( 1 kg = 2.205 lb)


How much does it weigh?   It weighs   x   tons      

Britain uses both Centigrade (sometimes called Celsius) and Fahrenheit systems.

22° C is twenty-two degrees Centigrade, twenty-two degrees Celsius or twenty-two degrees C

15° F is fifteen degrees Fahrenheit

12.10 Listening Comprehension - Listen to the tape and write the figures in the spaces


There was something wrong with Mary’s car, so she telephoned her local garage and asked them to send a mechanic to repair her car. Yesterday the mechanic came and did the job.

Mary had her car repaired yesterday.

This means: Mary didn’t repair the car herself. Someone else did the work for her.

Vertaa nämä lauseet:
Mary repaired the car. (Mary korjasi auton)
Mary had the car repaired. (Mary sai jonkun muun korjamaan auton)

Katsoo: Did you make that dress? No, I had it made. (Teitkö mekon itse? En, teetin sen )

Kun haluamme kertoa että joku muu tekee jotain meidän puolestamme, käyttämme rakennetta:

have something done

1) Sanajärjestys on hyvin tärkeä:
Subjekti   Have verbi (sopivassa aikamuodossa) objekti pääverbin 3. muoto loppuosa
Mike   has his hair cut every week.
Jane   had her dress cleaned yesterday.
We   are having a swimming pool put in  
I   must have my teeth checked.  
I   need to have a tooth taken out.  
When   will you have central heating installed?  
Why   didn’t you have your photo taken?  
2) Joskus, puhekielessä käyttämme get have:n sijasta

I got my hair cut yesterday.

He’ll get his car repaired tomorrow.

3) Tämä rakenne ei aina tarkoita että toiminta on järjestetty tahallaan

I had my car stolen yesterday. - ei tarkoita että olen järjestänyt asian!

He had a front tooth knocked out in a fight . Hän sai etuhampaan lyödyksi pois tappelussa.

12.12 Pikaharjoitus Täydennä lauseita, käyttäen suluissa olevia sanoja, muuta verbimuodot tarvittaessa

12.14 Text for reading and listening

The visit.

John Smith was very happy. He enjoyed a quiet life in his little, old wooden house with his beautiful wife and their three playful dogs. But two days ago his happiness came to an end. His wife’s mother, who lived in America , had telephoned to say that she was coming to stay with them for four weeks, and that she would arrive next week. John hated his mother-in-law, and she disliked John. She thought that John wasn’t good enough for her daughter. John said that the best thing his mother-in-law had ever done was to go and live far away in America.

Mary was very happy that her mother was coming to visit them. "John" she said " you must have your shoes repaired and your suits cleaned, and you must have your hair cut."

"I don’t need to have my hair cut - I had it cut 3 weeks ago" he replied.

"We must also have the car repaired," she said " and we must have it cleaned inside and out, we want it to look nice for her"

"We don’t have time to do that", he said, "we’ve only got one week before she comes. Anyway, she can take a bus from the airport.

His wife wasn’t listening, her face was shining with excitement as she continued to make her plans. "I must have some new dresses made," she thought, "and I’ll have to get the gold watch she gave me for my birthday repaired, and I must have new curtains made for the kitchen, and we need to have the guest room cleaned."

"John," she shouted, " I think it’s a good time to have the house painted and we should have the fence repaired. We also need to have the kitchen decorated, and the living room repainted, and we have to have the windows cleaned."

"This should certainly solve the unemployment problem," he said.

"You don’t need to be nasty," Jill said, "after all, we haven’t seen her for 10 years".

So, John had his hair cut, he had all his suits cleaned. They had the car repaired. Jill had new curtains made for the kitchen and she had her watch repaired. It was very difficult to find workmen at such short notice, but in the end they got the house painted and the fence repaired. But at the last minute John’s mother-in-law telephoned to say she was ill and couldn’t come this year.

"How terribly sad," said Jill. "Yes, dear," said John , trying not to smile.




Thank you very much, it’s very kind of you! Don’t mention it!

Thank you                         These are used to thank
Thank you very much                         people for simple things.
Thanks a lot                         ("Thanks" is very informal)
Thank you. I'm very grateful       For special help, when we
Thank you very much. It's very kind of you.       want to emphasise our thanks
Thank you very much, I really am grateful.        
Not at all                         These are used to reply
My pleasure                         to thanks.
Don't mention it                          
You're very welcome                          


Could you open the window, please?           Use "please" at the end, when
Would you copy this for me, please?           someone will do something for you
A cup of tea, please            
Please sit down             Use please at the beginning when
Please help yourself to some coffee             the other person will do something
Please start eating, don't wait             for himself



No, I’m sorry. You can’t smoke here

If someone asks us "Can I smoke here?" or "Has the fax come yet?", and the answer is negative, we must remember not to say simply "NO". This can sound rather aggressive and unhelpful. We usually soften such an answer with a longer expression.
Has the fax come yet?             I'm afraid it hasn't.  
May I smoke here?             I'm sorry, but it's not allowed here.  
Would you like some coffee?             Not at the moment, thank you  
Do you know their address?             I'm afraid I've no idea  


In many cases, answering a person with the single word "YES", is extremely impolite. It can sound very aggressive. In fact, it is used as a signal that you are not interested in the speaker, or wish to stop the conversation.

There are many more expressions which are more polite, natural and pleasant than using the single word "Yes". Study these examples:

Could I have another cup of coffee?       Of course, help yourself.
Is it all right to park my car here?       Yes, it's quite all right.
Shall I phone them now?       Yes, that's a good idea.
Did you manage to read the report?       Yes, I did.
Will it be OK to do it tomorrow?       I should think so.
Can I copy this programme?       It's OK by me.
Is Friday suitable?       Yes, fine. No problem.
Have you got a copy?       Yes, thank you.
Do you think I should tell them?       Yes, I'm in complete agreement

12.18 SMALL TALK Finland's history and international relations

Matti and Peter talk about Finland's history

Peter: I see from your calendar that December 6th is a national holiday.

Matti: Yes it is, it's our Independence Day.

Peter: How long has Finland been Independent?

Matti: Since 1917, and before that we were part of Russia.

Peter: Wasn't Finland under the Swedes at one time too?

Matti: It was indeed. For over 700 years.

Peter: When did Finland become part of Russia?

Matti: At the beginning of the nineteenth century. In 1809

Peter: That's interesting. I'm afraid they don't teach us very much about Finnish history in British schools.

Matti: No, I can understand that..

Peter: Finland had a very close relationship with the Soviet Union, didn't it?

Matti: Very good indeed. We had a treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. We did a lot of trade with them in those days.

Peter: What about today? Do you do much business with Russia?

Matti: Not really now that their economy is so bad. But hopefully in the future we'll start to do a lot of business with them again.

Peter: The situation is quite difficult there at the moment. Does Finland have a close relationship with other Scandinavian countries?

Matti: Yes, we do. There are many areas of cooperation. Sweden, Denmark and Finland are all members of the Common Market.

12.19 PRONUNCIATION PRACTICE Listen and repeat these key words and phrases


Finland is a beautiful country. It has thousands of inland lakes, a magnificent archipelago, forests, wilderness and fells. Each season brings its own special charm, like the "russet time" in Lapland in autumn when the leaves turn red, yellow and brown - summer, with its long, bright nights, and the cold, white winter. These are the traditional reasons why tourists love to visit Finland. Above all, Finland is a clean and peaceful country where each tourist can find the right type of holiday to suit his or her style and pocket.
If you fly into Finland on a sunny day, and look through the windows of the aeroplane, the first thing you notice will be the forests which cover the country, and the lakes. The forests and trees are an extremely important part of every Finn’s life and not just because the forest industry is one of the most important industries. Wood is the raw material for many houses. Detached houses are usually built using a wooden frame and nearly all summer cottages are made of wood, both inside and out. Years ago, whole towns were made of wood, even the roof tiles were wood.

Many of these old towns were destroyed by fire, but in places like Rauma and Porvoo you can still see areas of ancient wooden houses. Wood is also the raw material for much art and handicrafts. Many artists get inspiration from the colours and the forms of the forest. A popular pastime for Finns both young and old is picking the berries and mushrooms of the forest. Here you find blueberries, cowberries, raspberries and dozens of different edible mushrooms. Finnish cuisine is very close to nature.

If you arrive by boat from Sweden on one of the giant passenger and car ferries, you will pass through the beautiful Ahvenanmaa Archipelago. For many people, this is the most beautiful archipelago in the world. There are thousands of rocky islands. Some large, some small, some with summer cottages on them, some without. This is the playground for many Finnish holidaymakers. You can see them in their yachts, on their water skis, fishing or windsurfing, or simply lying on a beach or a rock enjoying the summer sun. Water is an important part of Finnish life. Finland has more than 300 000 summer cottages, and these are usually near a lake, river or sea.
As a tourist in Finland you will enjoy the nature, whether you are by the sea, by a lake or in the forest. Here you can experience a peace and beauty unique in Europe.

12. Exercises for sending to your instructor


Takaisin alkuun

Takaisin etusivulle